The Republic of Somaliland declared self-independence in 1991, although it has not gained widespread international recognition, including from the Somali Federal Government in Mogadishu. Puntland State of Somalia is a self-declared autonomous state of the Federal State of Somalia. Unlike Somaliland, Puntland does not seek recognition as an independent entity, wishing instead to be a part of Federal Somalia. Any references to ‘Somalia’ within this country profile should be understood to be in reference to all 3 zones of Somalia (Somaliland, Puntland and South and Central Somalia). Any reference to ‘Somaliland’, ‘Puntland’ or ‘South and Central’ are specific to each individual area.
Key mixed migration characteristics
- Somalia ranks highly as a country of origin for people in mixed migration flows in the Horn of Africa region.
- Mixed migration movements from Somalia are primarily refugees and asylum seekers, who number close to 1 million in the region.
- Puntland is a popular area of origin and transit for mixed migration flows in the region, but has recently also become an area of destination for refugee and returnee flows from Yemen.
- Somaliland is a popular area of origin, transit and destination for mixed migration flows in the region. Estimates suggest that there are at least 20,000 undocumented migrants, mainly Ethiopian, in Somaliland, although government estimates place this much higher.
- Somalia’s diaspora network, which is spread all over the globe and numbers between 1-1.5 million persons, is a major contributor to the economy and stability of the state, contributing between USD 1.3 and 2 billion per year in remittances.
- There are 1.1 million internally displaced persons across the whole of Somalia.
- The signature of a Tripartite Agreement between the Federal Government of Somalia, the Government of Kenya and UNHCR in 2013 will see South Central Somalia increasingly become an area for mixed migration destination movements as refugees from neighbouring Kenya return to the country.
- According to U.S. Trafficking in Persons Report 2016, Somalia is a source, transit and destination country for forced labour and sex trafficking.
As a mixed migration origin area
Somalia is a major country of origin for mixed migration in the Horn of Africa and Yemen. The greater part of this emigration has occurred during the last twenty five years, coinciding with conflict, chronic insecurity, extreme poverty, famine, and until 2012, the lack of an effective central government. The majority of people who have migrated and continue to migrate from the area are the close to one million refugees who have sought protection in neighbouring countries in the region.
While exact figures are unknown, Somalia is believed to have a sizeable diaspora estimated at 1-1.5 million persons in countries all over the world. Large numbers of Somalis are found in Europe (particularly the UK, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden), USA, Canada, and with increasing prevalence in countries like Australia and Malaysia. 1 Somali diaspora have strong links with their home country, contributing between USD 1.3 and 2 billion per year to promote education, healthcare, public infrastructure and private enterprise.2
Aside from refugee flows, Somalis are also engaged in irregular migration through the Horn of Africa region to destination countries further afield. These migration patterns follow three main routes: East, crossing the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden through Yemen and across the Arabian Peninsula; South, through Kenya and countries on the eastern Africa corridor towards South Africa; and West through Sudan and Libya with the intention to cross the Mediterranean Sea and access Europe.
Somali migrants and refugees from various regions in the country have traditionally travelled from the coastal towns Obock in Djibouti and Bossaso in Puntland across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden/Arabian Sea to Yemen. According to monitoring missions conducted by UNHCR and its partners along Yemen coasts, at least 217,091 Somalis travelled to Yemen between 2006 and June 2016. A disruption in monitoring missions after the outbreak of conflict in Yemen in 2015 means that the numbers arriving in Yemen may be much higher.
Somalis from South and Central regions transit through the towns of Mogadishu, Beletweyne, joining Somalis from Puntland in Galkayo and Garowe while travelling north, passing through Qardho on the way to Bossaso, and joining Somalis from Somaliland through Las Anood, Burao and Hargeisa on the way to Djibouti. Migrants travel through Somali territory unaided, but often rely on the use of smugglers to cross into and across Djibouti, and to facilitate their sea journeys from Somalia and Djibouti to Yemen and beyond. Once in Yemen, some Somalis choose to seek asylum, where they are granted prima facie refugee status, while others continue on their journey towards Saudi Arabia. The average cost of the sea crossing to Yemen is between USD 150-250.
The number of Somalis who move on from Yemen to Saudi Arabia is unknown, but the deportation of over 40,000 Somali migrants from Saudi Arabia between December 2013 and August 2014 indicates that a substantial share of Somalis arriving in Yemen successfully crossed into Saudi Arabia in recent years. 3
The majority of Somali migrants travelling southwards rely on smugglers along their journey, travelling by foot and by road in containerized trucks, buses, or cars, or in some instances by sea. Although the most direct route to South Africa only involves three countries – Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique – countries such as Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe are also frequently traversed. Estimates suggest that the cost for Somalis to be smuggled to South Africa can range between USD 2,500-5,000 depending on the countries which migrants are smuggled through. 4 The most recent figures, published in 2009, estimate the number of Somali migrants moving south along this route to be around 6,000 persons per year. 5 More up to date figures are not available. According to data from RMMS’ Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (4Mi), 34% of interviewed Somali migrants had South Africa as their preferred destination.
The Central Mediterranean migration route, stemming from the Horn of Africa, and transiting through Sudan and Libya (and increasingly Egypt) and into Europe through Italy has witnessed growing popularity in the past two years. The entire journey to Europe, beginning when migrants leave Somalia and cross into Ethiopia and further into Sudan, Libya and eventually across the Mediterranean Sea, is facilitated by a number of distinct but cooperative smuggling networks.
The total cost for the journey from Somalia to Italy varies, depending on negotiated fees, time spent in transit, ransom fees, sitting position (upper or lower deck) and the time of year (peak conditions during European summertime may for example, attract higher fees). According to an interview conducted by RMMS with one Somali migrant, the entire journey from Somalia (South and Central) to Italy cost approximately USD 15,000. 6 A study by Rift Valley Institute found the average cost of this journey for migrants from Somaliland and Puntland was approximately USD 7,600. Moreover, it shed light on the emergence of a “leave now-pay later” policy that allowed young people to embark on the journey without having to worry about money. Whilst en route young people are often held for ransom, pressurising families back in Somalia to raise funds for their release.7
Young Somali migrants who were transferred to a detention centre in Al Khoms, Libya, after being rescued from a sinking vessel. Photo credit: Tom Westcott/IRIN.
New research by RMMS also indicates the emergence of a new mixed migration route to Europe that crosses to Europe through Yemen. 8 The route, which emerged at the end of 2015 is currently being used exclusively by Somali youth (aged 15-25 years old). Migrants and refugees depart from remote coastal towns near Bossaso by sea and arrive in Mukallah in Yemen. From there they travel overland from Mukallah to Mokha, a coastal town in western Yemen. Once in Mokha, migrants and refugees board another boat and travel to Sudan via the Red Sea, continuing their journey through Sudan and Libya overland, before finally boarding sea vessels in Libya and crossing the Mediterranean Sea to Europe.
While definite figures on the numbers of Somalis leaving the country are not available, estimates suggest that between 50 and 150 people are smuggled out of Somaliland every month 9 , while a 2013 UNHCR study estimated that between 500 and 3,000 migrants per month cross the border between Somaliland and Ethiopia. 10 The growing popularity of the westward route to Europe has been particularly evident among Somali nationals, 12,433 of whom arrived in Italy via the Central Mediterranean route in 2015, a 116% increase on similar movements in 2014. Somalis made up 8% of arrivals along this route in 2015, and were the second most populous group arriving from the Horn of Africa region (after Eritreans), and the third most populous overall. In the half of 2016, Somalis continued to make up 6% of arrivals along this route.
Despite the gains made by Somalia in state-building and peace-building since 2012, the country remains particularly fragile due to challenges in humanitarian conditions, fragile food security situation, and precarious security environment. Humanitarian and development indicators for Somalia remain among the worst in the world. Extreme poverty and lack of employment opportunities leave many young Somalis with few prospects for the future. Over 70% of Somalia’s population is under thirty years old, and the unemployment rate for youth is at 67%. 12 According to Somaliland’s National Development programme, unemployment in Somaliland stands at 47.4%, but this climbs to 75% among youth.13
According to 4Mi data, the most common primary drivers of migration cited by Somali migrants and refugees are economic, political and conflict related factors. Economic factors are particularly qualified by unemployment, poverty and a sense of responsibility to send remittances to family. The latest World Bank data shows that the Somali economy is highly reliant on remittances, not only to buffer the economy, but to provide a lifeline to large segments of the population cushioning household economies and creating a buffer against shocks.14
As a mixed migration destination area
South and Central Somalia is not a major destination for mixed migration movements. Movements into Somalia are almost exclusively returning Somali nationals from neighbouring countries. In November 2013, the Federal Government of Somalia, the Government of Kenya and UNHCR signed a Tripartite Agreement that paved the way for the “safe and dignified voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees” from Kenya to Somalia. The process was ensued to support the already spontaneous movement of Somali refugees going back to Somalia. Since 2014, UNHCR has been providing repatriation support to Somali refugees in Kenya expressing a willingness to return to Somalia. At the end of May 2016, 14,226 Somalis had returned to Somalia since 2014. 8,131 returned between January and May 2016 suggesting a surge in interest. This figure is expected to climb over the next few months as the Tripartite Commission governing returns to Somalia noted a prospective reduction of the population in the Dadaab refugee complex by 150,000 persons by the end of 2016.15 Moreover, the majority of Somali returnees arriving in Somaliland and Puntland have indicated an intention to eventually return to South and Central regions, with 52% specifying Mogadishu as their preferred final destination.16
Aside from recent refugee and returnee movements into Puntland from Yemen since March 2015 (see below on Refugees, Asylum-seekers and IDPs), and IDP movements from South Central Somalia regions, Puntland is not a major destination area for mixed migration movements.
Somaliland is a destination area for many irregular migrants from the Ethiopia. In 2012, UNHCR estimated that there were at least 20,000 undocumented foreigners in Somaliland, including unknown numbers of Ethiopian economic migrants. The government’s estimates are considerably higher, at 80,000 persons. Migrants of Ethiopian origin are not well received by government authorities, who are unhappy about the volume of migrants passing through and/or residing in their territory.17 Somaliland is also a destination area for internally displaced persons from South and Central Somalia and Somali returnees from Yemen (see below on Refugees, Asylum-seekers and IDPs)
As a mixed migration transit area
There is no evidence that South and Central Somalia is used as a mixed migratory transit route. Given its geographical location and insecurity this is not surprising and is unlikely to change.
Puntland is a popular mixed migration transit area for migrants and asylum seekers travelling east to Yemen and Gulf States, or west along the desert route through Sudan and Libya towards Europe. For those heading east, Somali and Ethiopian migrants and refugees depart from remote town nears the port of Bossaso in the north of Puntland across the Arabian Sea towards Yemen and other Gulf States. In mid-2014, migrant and refugee movements along this route began to increase in popularity, overtaking the historically more widely used Red Sea route from Obock in Djibouti. Puntland is now at the epicentre of smuggling operations to Yemen. An estimated 53,967 migrants and refugees arrived in Yemen using this route (84% of all movements to Yemen) between January and June 2016.18
Somaliland is a popular mixed migration transit area for migrants and asylum seekers seeking to travel east to Yemen and Gulf States (via Djibouti or Puntland), or west along the desert route through Sudan and Libya towards Europe. The Loya-Ade and Tog Wajaale border towns between Somaliland and Djibouti and between Somaliland and Ethiopia respectively, are major transit points in these mixed flows, with well-established smuggling networks.
Refugees, Asylum-seekers and IDPs in Somalia
Refugee and asylum seekers
At the end of June 2016, there were 976,574 Somali refugees displaced within the Horn of Africa and Yemen region. The largest hosts of Somali refugees are Kenya (43%) Yemen (26%) and Ethiopia (26%). This displacement has occurred over the past two decades, with large numbers of Somali nationals fleeing externally (and internally) from violence and conflict, famine and severe food insecurity. A severe drought in the East African region between mid-2011 and mid-2012 caused a major food crisis across the countries. The drought particularly affected parts of southern Somalia and by September 2011 more than 920,000 people from Somalia had reportedly fled to neighbouring countries, particularly Kenya and Ethiopia.19
Aerial view of a section of Dadaab refugee complex in Kenya. Photo credit: Brendan Bannon/IOM/UNHCR
UNHCR estimates that there were approximately 21,223 refugees and asylum seekers (excluding Yemeni nationals), of mainly Ethiopian origin, across Somalia, as of the end of May 2016.
Following the outbreak of conflict in Yemen in March 2015, thousands of refugees, asylum seekers and Somali returnees arrived in Somalia. At the end of June 2016, 32,169 persons (367 in South and Central, 22,006 in Puntland and 10,246 in Somaliland) had arrived from Yemen, 86% of whom were Somali returnees. A total of 4,160 Yemeni nationals (2,036 in Puntland and 2,124 in Somaliland) (10%) had arrived during the same period. The governments of Puntland and Somaliland announced the grant of prima facie status for Yemeni nationals in their territory almost immediately after the outbreak of the conflict. RMMS research indicated that some Yemeni refugees had an intention to return to Yemen when the situation was stable and that some refugees may have already returned or may be engaged in circular movement between the two countries. No concrete figures are however available.20
Almost 40,000 Somali migrants were expelled and deported to Mogadishu from Saudi Arabia between December 2013 and August 2014.21 Reports indicate that many of these irregular migrants were arrested and held in detention centres in substandard conditions in Saudi Arabia, and may have been subject to ill-treatment including gender-based violence.22
While there is a significant level of displacement outside of Somalia, a similar number of persons are displaced within Somalia. According to UNHCR there are approximately 1.1 million internally displaced persons across the whole of Somalia (893,000 in South and Central, 130,000 in Puntland and 85,000 in Somaliland).
Displacement in South and Central regions is attributed to a number of factors including forced evictions, drought and food insecurity, abuses in Al-Shabaab controlled areas and tribal clashes. A large proportion of the IDPs in Puntland and Somaliland are from regions in the south. Border disputes between Puntland and Somaliland have also contributed to displacement in both zones.
The push by the Kenyan government to close the Dadaab refugee camp and return 150,000 refugees by the end of 2016 may push up IDP numbers in Somalia if they are returned without the necessary support services in place when they return.
IDP settlement in Qardho, Puntland. Photo credit: Axel Fassio/DRC
Protection issues and vulnerable groups
Migrants and asylum seekers from Somalia face significant protection risks during their journeys on all routes from Somalia. Data from RMMS’ 4Mi shows reports of deaths, missing persons, kidnapping, extortion, physical and sexual abuse, and a lack of food and water facing Somalis on the move.
The red dots on the map indicate incidents reported by Somali migrants along key migratory routes. The larger the dot the higher the number of incidents (Source: http://4mi.regionalmms.org/)
In April 2016, media outlets reported that around 200 Somali nationals had drowned after their boat capsized en route to Italy from Egypt. Following the event, the federal government announced a ban on its citizens travelling to Sudan 23. Sudan is a popular transit country for migrants and refugees who intend to travel to Europe.
Those using the eastern route towards the Middle East and Gulf states consistently report cases of abduction, robbery, extortion, physical and sexual abuse during sea crossings from Djibouti, Somaliland and Puntland to Yemen and upon arrival in Yemen. An estimated 416 migrants and asylum seekers have been reported as missing or dead in boat accidents on sea crossings from Horn of Africa to Yemen between 2012 and March 2016. 24
The journey through the desert in Sudan and Libya is particularly arduous. Migrants face multiple risks including, physical and sexual abuse, harsh weather conditions and dehydration and vehicle accidents resulting in injury or death. In particular, migrants are at risk of abduction and kidnapping by criminal and possible trafficking elements who hold migrants at ransom until they are able to secure a release fee (ranging from hundreds into thousands of US Dollars) from family members and friends back in Somalia.25 Upcoming research by the Rift Valley Institute uncovered that 85% of youth from Somaliland and Puntland migrating to Europe had been held for ransom at least once during their journey, and almost 60% were held more than once.26
An Amnesty International report has documented widespread abuses against migrants by armed groups, smugglers, traffickers and organised criminal groups in Libya, including abductions and extortion, sexual violence, and abuse in immigration detention centres.27 Further, a recent report suggested that migrants who are unable to pay for their journeys from Libya across the Mediterranean are also at risk of being sold to organ traffickers by their smugglers.28
Detention of migrants
South and Central Somalia is not a country of destination for asylum seekers or refugees from neighbouring countries, nor a transit country for others in mixed migration flows, and as such immigration detention is not an issue. While the federal government does permit prison monitoring by independent non-governmental observers, it is unknown how many people (including foreigners) are detained. Prison and detention centre conditions are described as harsh and life threatening throughout the country, with issues such as overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of food and water being cited among others.29
Puntland authorities claim to be actively engaged in the fight against migrant smuggling. Many smugglers are reportedly in prison in Puntland, however many migrants end up being arrested and detained by authorities also. It is estimated that on average between 9 and 15 migrants are detained every month, 95% are males and most are between the ages of 19 and 33.30 In April 2012, the UN Independent Expert for Somalia visited several detention centres in Puntland, and described detention conditions as close to inhumane, overcrowded and frequently lacking in water, sanitation and ventilation.31
Somaliland authorities have expressed concern about the volume of migrants passing through and/are residing in their territory. As such, arrests and detention of migrants are common. In the event of an arrest, migrants are usually deported to Ethiopia or transferred to IOM for return assistance. Somaliland authorities do not have the resources to keep migrants in detention for a long time, and as such detentions are normally in the compound of a police station until migrants can be deported or released. In the border town of Loya-Ade for example, migrants are often detained for unlimited days depending on the availability of transport to take them back to the Ethiopian border.32
In January 2016, Somaliland’s Ministry of Resettlement, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction announced an operation to deport citizens from other countries who are in Somaliland without valid residence or approval permits. Somaliland officials undertook a series of massive arrests and deportations of Ethiopian asylum seekers, refugees and economic migrants. According to UNHCR 1,037 people were arrested, but all Ethiopian asylum seekers and refugees were released after proving their status to immigration authorities. These operations, coupled with threats that all foreigners have to leave the territory, are a recurrent phenomenon in Somaliland.
Prison conditions in Somaliland are described as close to inhumane, overcrowded, and frequently lacking in water, sanitation and ventilation.33
Somalia is not a signatory to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime or its Protocols.
The US Department of State’s 2016 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report 34 classified Somalia as a Special Case for the fourteenth year in a row. According to the report, Somalia is a source, transit and destination country for the trafficking of men, women and children, who are subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking. Information on trafficking in Somalia is extremely difficult to obtain and verify, and the government’s capacities remain constrained in addressing human trafficking therefore yielding minimal results in prosecution, protection and prevention. Moreover, the reports suggests that many government and law enforcement officials lack an understanding of trafficking crimes, which are often conflated with smuggling.
Trafficked women are usually taken to Yemen and the Gulf States to work as domestic servants or as prostitutes. Men are subjected to forced labour and children to forcibly beg on the streets in Saudi Arabia. Somali diaspora use false promises of marriage to lure victims to them, where they are then forced into prostitution or domestic servitude. Internally displaced persons are particularly vulnerable to trafficking, and gatekeepers at IDP camps reportedly collude with Somali officials to obtain sex from IDPs in exchange for food and services. According to the TIP report, officials from the Federal Government of Somalia are reportedly involved in procuring falsified documents to allow trafficking victims to travel to destination countries.
International and national legislation and migration policies
According to Article 10 of Somaliland’s constitution, the government maintains the international conventions and treaties that the pre-1991 Somali Republic convened with foreign governments, provided that these are not contrary to Shari’a law or the interests of Somaliland. Puntland also maintains the international conventions and treaties signed by the pre-1991 government and is further a signatory to any new conventions signed by the Federal Government since 2012.
Somalia has ratified the following international legislation relevant to mixed migration and protection of human rights of migrants and refugees.
- 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees & its 1967 Protocol
- 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- 1966 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
- 1969 OAU Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa
- 1987 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child
- 2000 Optional Protocol on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
- 2009 African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Somalia is a signatory but has yet to ratify the Convention)
Somalia’s pre-1991 penal code (applicable at federal and regional levels) gives the following protections:
- Article 455 prohibits slavery
- Article 464 prohibits forced labour
- Article 457 prohibits the transferring, disposing, taking possession, or holding of a person
- Article 408(1) prohibits compelled prostitution of a person through violence or threats
Somalia’s Constitution (adopted in 2012, but provisional until a national referendum) provides the following protections:
- Article 14 freedom from slavery, servitude and forced labour
- Article 21 freedom of movement and residence
- Article 24 labour relations
- Article 29 children
- Article 37 refugees and asylum
1 UNDP (2009). Somalia’s Missing Million: The Somali diaspora and its role in development.
2 UNDP (2012). Cash and Compassion: The Role of the Somali Diaspora in relief, development and peace-building.
3 RMMS (2014). The Letter of the Law: regular and irregular migration in Saudi Arabia in a context of rapid change. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/RMMS_Letter_of_the_Law_-_Saudi_Arabia_report.pdf
4 Lawry Research Associates International (2012). Health vulnerability study of mixed migration flows from the East and Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes to Southern Africa. Verification Report.
5 RMMS (2013). Responses to mixed migration in the Horn of Africa & Yemen: policies and assistance responses in a fast-changing context. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/series_three_booklet.pdf
7 Rift Valley Institute (2016 upcoming). Tahriib: Somali youth and the precarious journey to Europe.
8 RMMS (2016). Pushed and Pulled in Two Directions: An analysis of the bi-directional refugee and migrant flow between the Horn of Africa and Yemen. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/briefing/Pushed_and_Pulled.pdf
9 RMMS (2014). Going West: contemporary mixed migration trends from the Horn of Africa to Libya & Europe. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/Going_West_migration_trends_Libya_Europe_final.pdf
10 Altai Consulting (2013). Mixed Migration: Libya at the Crossroads. Mapping of Migration Routes and Drivers of Migration in Post-revolution Libya. Altai Consulting/UNHCR Tripoli.
11 Eurostat (2016). Asylum Statistics. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics (accessed May 25, 2016)
12 UNDP (2016). About Somalia. Available at http://www.so.undp.org/content/somalia/en/home/countryinfo.html (accessed May 25, 2016)
13 IRIN (2011). Unemployment fuels youth exodus from Somaliland. Available at: http://www.irinnews.org/report/94285/somalia-unemployment-fuels-youth-exodus-somaliland
14 The World Bank (2016). Somalia. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/somalia/overview (accessed May 25, 2016)
15 UNHCR (2016). Joint Communique: Ministerial Tripartite Commission for the Voluntary Repatriation of Somali Refugees from Kenya to Somalia. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/576ea0474.html?mc_cid=3ae0fee486&mc_eid=77d90e763f (accessed June 27, 2016)
16 RMMS (2016). Mixed Migration Monthly Summary June 2016. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/monthlysummary/RMMS_Mixed_Migration_Monthly_Summary_June_2016.pdf
17 RMMS (2013). Responses to mixed migration in the Horn of Africa & Yemen. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/series_three_booklet.pdf
18 RMMS (2016). Pushed and Pulled in Two Directions. Available at: hthttp://regionalmms.org/images/briefing/Pushed_and_Pulled.pdf
19 Voice of America. UN: One-third of Somalis now displaced. Available at: http://www.voanews.com/content/un-one-third-of-somalis-now-displaced-129883783/158855.html
20 RMMS (2016). Pushed and Pulled in Two Directions. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/briefing/Pushed_and_Pulled.pdf
21 RMMS (2014). The Letter of the Law: regular and irregular migration in Saudi Arabia in a context of rapid change. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/RMMS_Letter_of_the_Law_-_Saudi_Arabia_report.pdf
22 RMMS (2014). Letter of the Law: Regular and irregular migration in Saudi Arabia in a context of rapid change. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/RMMS_Letter_of_the_Law_-_Saudi_Arabia_report.pdf
23 Bloomberg (2016). Somalia bans citizens from traveling to Sudan after 200 deaths. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-19/somalia-bans-citizens-from-traveling-to-sudan-after-200-deaths
25 RMMS (2014). Going West: contemporary mixed migration trends from the Horn of Africa to Libya & Europe. Available at:http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/Going_West_migration_trends_Libya_Europe_final.pdf
27 Amnesty International (2015). ‘Libya is full of cruelty: Stories of abduction, sexual violence and abuse from migrants and refugees’. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde19/1578/2015/en/
28 The Telegraph (2016). Migrants who cannot pay are being sold for organs, smuggler tells Italian authorities. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/07/04/migrants-who-cannot-pay-are-being-sold-for-organs-smuggler-tells/
30 RMMS (2015). Behind bars: the detention of migrants in and from the East & Horn of Africa. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/Behind_Bars_the_detention_of_migrants_in_and_from_the_East___Horn_of_Africa_2.pdf
32 RMMS (2014). Behind bars: the detention of migrants in and from the East & Horn of Africa. Available at: http://regionalmms.org/images/ResearchInitiatives/Behind_Bars_the_detention_of_migrants_in_and_from_the_East___Horn_of_Africa_2.pdf
34 US Department of State (2016). Trafficking in Persons Report 2016. Available at: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf